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The Tomahawk Land Attack Missile (TLAM) is a long-range, all-weather, subsonic cruise missile. Introduced by General Dynamics in the 1970s, it was designed as a medium to long-range, low-altitude missile that could be launched from a submerged submarine. It has been improved several times and, by way of corporate divestitures and acquisitions, is now made by Raytheon. Some Tomahawks were also manufactured by McDonnell Douglas. The Tomahawk missile family consists of a number of subsonic, jet engine-powered missiles for attacking a variety of surface targets. Although a number of launch platforms have been deployed or envisaged, only naval (both surface ship and submarine) launched variants are currently in service. Tomahawk has a modular design, allowing a wide variety of warhead, guidance and range capabilities. A major improvement to the Tomahawk is its network-centric warfare-capabilities, using data from multiple sensors (aircraft, UAVs, satellites, foot soldiers, tanks, ships) to find its target. It will also be able to send data from its sensors to these platforms. It will be a part of the networked force being implemented by the Pentagon. ”Tactical Tomahawk” equips the TLAM with a TV-camera for battlefield observation loitering that allows warfighting commanders to assess damage to the target and to redirect the missile to an alternative target. Additionally the Tactical Tomahawk is able to be reprogrammed in-flight to attack one of 16 predesignated targets with GPS coordinates stored in its memory or to any other GPS coordinates. Also, the missile can send data about its status back to the commander. It entered service with the Navy in late 2004. On May 2009, Raytheon Missile Systems proposed an upgrade to the Tomahawk Block IV land-attack cruise missile that would allow it to kill or disable large, hardened warships at 900 nm range. the 1991 Persian Gulf conflict, 288 Tomahawks were launched. The first salvo was fired by the cruiser USS San Jacinto on January 17, 1991. The attack submarines USS Pittsburgh and USS Louisville followed. The Louisville Slugger company gave the crew of the latter special-edition baseball bats emblazoned with an image of the submarine conducting a Tomahawk launch. The honor was repeated during Operation Iraqi Freedom. The United States Navy has a stockpile of around 3,500 Tomahawk cruise missiles of all variants. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]

Chewing gum is a type of gum traditionally made of chicle, a natural latex product, or synthetic rubber known as polyisobutylene, which is a non-vulcanisable form of the butyl rubber (isoprene-isobutylene) used for inner tubes or to line tubeless tires. For reasons of economy and quality, many modern chewing gums use rubber instead of chicle. Chicle is nonetheless still the base of choice for some regional markets, such as in Japan. Chewing gum in various forms has existed since at least the Neolithic period. 5,000 year old chewing gum with tooth imprints, made of birch bark tar, has been found in Kierikki, Yli-Ii, Finland. The bark tar of which the gums were made is believed to have antiseptic properties and other medicinal advantages. The ancient Aztecs used chicle as a base for making a gum-like substance. Women in particular used this gum as a mouth freshener. Forms of chewing gums were also used in Ancient Greece. The Greeks chewed mastic gum, made from the resin of the mastic tree. Many other cultures have chewed gum-like substances made from plants, grasses, and resins. The American Indians chewed resin made from the sap of spruce trees. The New England settlers picked up this practice, and in the early 1880s attempts were made to commercially market spruce gum. Around 1850 a gum made from paraffin wax was developed and soon exceeded the spruce gum in popularity. The United States military have regularly supplied soldiers with chewing gum since World War I because it helped both to improve the soldiers' concentration and to relieve stress. As of 2005, the U.S. military is sponsoring development of a chewing gum formulation with an antibacterial agent that could replace conventional oral hygiene methods in the battlefield. This product is not expected to be available for use for some time to come. Sugar-free gum sweetened with xylitol has been shown to reduce cavities and plaque by starving microorganisms in the mouth. The same effect has not been shown for the sweetener sorbitol. The addition of calcium lactate has been shown to increase recalcification. Chewing gum sweetened with sugar can have a negative effect on oral health, because it can degrade the enamel on teeth. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]

The Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles (FMTV) is a series of vehicles manufactured by BAE Systems Land and Armaments based on a common chassis, which vary by payload and mission requirements. The FMTV were derived from the Austrian military truck Steyr 12M18. The Light Medium Tactical Vehicle (LMTV) has a 2.5-ton capacity (cargo and van models). The Medium Tactical Vehicle (MTV) has a 5-ton capacity (cargo and long-wheelbase cargo with and without material handling equipment, tractor, van, wrecker, and dump truck models). Three truck variants and two companion trailers, with the same cube and payload capacity as their prime movers, provide air drop capability. M1078s have been deployed to Iraq with armored cabs with roof gun mounts with shields, similar to those fitted on humvees and M113s. The cab-over FMTV replaces obsolete and maintenance-intensive 2.5 ton and 5 ton M35 and M939 series of trucks previously in the fleet and performs local and line haul, unit mobility, unit resupply, and other missions in combat, combat support and combat service support units. It is rapidly deployable worldwide and operates on primary and secondary roads, trails, and cross-country terrain, in all climatic conditions. Commonality of parts across truck chassis variants significantly reduces the logistics burden and operating and support costs. New vehicle applications are being developed to meet new requirements. The FMTV A1 series includes a 1999 Environmental Protection Agency-certified engine, upgraded transmission, electronic data bus, an anti-lock brake system and interactive electronic technical manuals. The FMTV shares its drivetrain with the Caiman MRAP vehicle. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]

The General Electric GEnx (General Electric Next-generation) is an advanced dual rotor, axial flow, high-bypass turbofan jet engine in production by GE Aviation for the Boeing 787 and 747-8. The GEnx is intended to replace the CF6 in GE's product line. The GEnx and the Rolls-Royce Trent 1000 were selected by Boeing following a run-off between the three big engine manufacturers. The GEnx uses some technology from the GE90 turbofan, including composite fan blades, and the smaller core featured in earlier variants of the engine. The engine carries composite technology into the fan case. Both engine types will have a standard interface with the aircraft, allowing any 787 to be fitted with either GE or RR engines at any time. The engine market for the 787 is estimated at US$40 billion over the next 25 years. A first is the elimination of bleed air systems using high temperature/high pressure air from the propulsion engines to power aircraft systems such as the starting, air-conditioning and anti-ice systems. The GEnx and the Trent 1000 allow a move towards the electric airplane. The GEnx is expected to produce thrust from 53,000 to 75,000 lbf (240 to 330 kN) with first tests commencing in 2006 and service entry by 2008 (now delayed by 787 deliveries). Boeing predicts reduced fuel consumption of up to 20% and significantly quieter engines than current turbofans. A 66,500 lbf (296 kN) thrust version (GEnx-2B67) will be used on the 747-8. Unlike the initial version, for the 787, this version has a traditional bleed air system to power internal pneumatic and ventilation systems. It will also have a smaller overall diameter than the initial model to accommodate installation on the 747. General Electric began initial test runs of the bleedless GEnx variant on 19 March 2006. The first flight with one of these engines took place on 22 February 2007, using a Boeing 747-100, fitted with one GEnx engine in the number 2 (inboard LH) position. This engine is a dual rotor, axial flow, high bypass ratio turbofan. The 10-stage high pressure compressor is driven clockwise (Aft Looking Forward) by a 2-stage high pressure turbine. The single stage fan and 4-stage low pressure compressor are driven counterclockwise (Aft Looking Forward) by a 7-stage low pressure turbine. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE] is not affiliated with or endorsed by wikipedia. wikipedia and the wikipedia globe are registered trademarks of
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